In my last post on this subject, I made a few minor descriptive errors about how magnetic reconnection works from an Electric Universe point of view, which I shall rectify in this post.
In this post I’m going to focus on “reconnection” (exploding double layers) events that take place in the magnetotail, which drive the aurora substorms that light up the polar skies.
To understand how and why exploding double layers of plasma can account for all reconnection events that take place in substorms, we must first identify the circuit to which the plasma in question belongs. In my previous post, I laid out the reasons why all ionized plasma must be part of a circuit if all the known laws of electricity are to be accounted for and obeyed. As far as I am aware, all of those points are accepted fact.
Alfven identifies the over-all circuit that powers the magnetosphere in his paper “A three-ring circuit model of the magnetosphere”
From this circuit view of the magnetosphere, we can derive the existence of a current sheet in the tail of the magnetosphere.
The reason why a current sheet exists in the tail in the first place is not well explained by the current MHD standard theory of the magnetosphere. An explanation for why this sheet should exist and what properties it should have can only be derived by applying circuit theory to plasmas.
In that tail sheet, we know from laboratory experimentation that any large change in voltage will precipitate the formation of a double layer. Variations in the circuit that powers the current sheet can lead to tearing mode instabilities within the sheet that give rise to double layers. It is the formation and explosion of these double layers that impart kinetic energy to the particles and redirects current from the tail into the ionosphere. Any scientist who denies this fact can be branded a criminal liar. I say criminal, because scientists who are funded through the tax system that deny this fact are indeed violating their fiduciary duty to the tax payer.
MHD theory is incapable of describing a double layer condition and it is also incapable of describing why the tail should have a current sheet.
In describing how this circuit theory view of the tail sheet can induce double layer formation and energy transfer, Alfven goes on to explain:
In the auroral current system the central body (Earth and ionosphere) maintains a dipole field (Fig. 7). B1 and B2 are magnetic field lines from the body. C is a plasma cloud near the equatorial plane moving in the sunward direction (out-of the figure) producing an electromotive force
which gives rise to a current in the circuit C1,al,a2,C2 and C1. The circuit may contain a double layer DL with the voltage V, in which the current releases energy at the rate P = I V which essentially is used for accelerating auroral electrons. The energy is transferred from C to DL not by high energy particles or waves (and, of course, not by magnetic merging or field reconnection). It is a property of the electric circuit (and can also be described by the Poynting vector, see Fig. 7).
According to Boström (1974) and Akasofu (1977), an explosion of the transverse current in the magnetotail gives an attractive mechanism for the production of magnetic substorms (see Fig. I 1). Boström has shown that an equivalent magnetic substorm circuit is a way of presenting the substorm model. The onset of a substorm is due to the formation of a double layer, which interrupts the cross-tail current so that it is redirected to the ionosphere.
So from this circuit theory explanation of why the magnetosphere exists and how energy is transfered through double layers, we are able to give a precise reason as to how and why “magnetic reconnection” occurs.
It has nothing to do with the merging of field lines, neutral points, separatrix, magnetic reconnection, or any other nonsense. It has everything to do with the properties of the circuit to which the plasma belongs.
This simple yet stunning conclusion demands an entire rewrite of modern cosmological theory.
Watch a tutorial on electric cosmology that makes the case for sweeping changes in cosmological theory here.
View a long list of reasons why the standard theory of cosmology is a load of junk science here.
Papers on double layer formation:
Double layer formation during current sheet disruptions in a reconnection experiment
Magnetic Field Line Reconnection Experiments, 5. Current Disruptions and Double Layers
Laboratory experiments on current sheet disruptions, double layers turbulence and reconnection
Fälthammar papers on reconnection and frozen-in field lines:
Fälthammar , Carl-Gunne. “On the Concept of Moving Magnetic Field Lines”, Eos, Vol. 88, No. 15, pp.169–170, 10 April 2007
Fälthammar , Carl-Gunne. “Magnetic-field aligned electric fields in collisionless space plasmas – a brief review”,Geofísica Internacional (2004), Vol. 43, Num. 2, pp. 225-23
Scott D. E. “Real Properties of Electromagnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos”, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol. 35, No. 4, August 2007